I/Passive voice (P.V): is usually to emphasize the result, the fact or the object of an action ,not the agent.
*P.V is used only with Transitive Verb
*P.V is used more commonly in written language , especially in the impersonal style of textbooks or report ( to describe an industrial and scientific process, to describe historical and social process or in official rules and procedures)
The ore is usually dug out of the ground.
Applications should be made in writing.
General form :
S+Vt+O ( Vt= transitive verb)
-->PV:S(o) + be + P(2)+ (by O)
*to be in passive sentence is always in the same forms and tenses & main verbs in the active sentence.
*To verb is changed into to be P(2)
*Verb is changed into be P(2)
*V-ing is changed into Being P(2)
*Modal verbs work in the same way :
S+ modal verb + Vt+ O
->P.V : S(o)+modal verb + be+P(2) + (by S)
The windows in being painted .
The machine can be taken apart.
BASIC USES of passive voice
I/Agent and instrument:
*Agent : A person who does the action in the Passive sentence is called the agent
*Instrument : Things which cause something to happen in a passive sentence is called an instrument .
I was hit by a branch ( The branch itself hit me)
Iwas hit with a branch ( Some one use a branch to hit me ).
II/Transitive and intrasitive verbs :
1/Transitive verbs are the verbs with object.
There are 3 kinds of Vt( verb transitive )
---[b]Memo-trasitive verbB] : verb with 1 object (read, write,...)
---Di-transitive verb :verb with 2 objects(give, bring,pay,hand,show...)
---Complex transitive verb
I read the newspapers yesterday.
I gave her a present.
--All Vt.s can be made passive except :become, have, get, suit, fit, resemble.
2/Intrasitive verbs are verbs with no object :
The baby is sleeping.
The bird flies.
3/Some verbs are both transitive and intransitive verbs . "run" for example :
He ran a shop --> A shop was run by him .
He is running --> (no passive)
* In this case, we focus on transitive verbs
III/Cases of omitting the agent.
1/When the agent is general : people, they, you , we .
*When these sentences are made passive , these general agents can be omitted because they doesn't give more information .
All over the world, people respect the knowledge
-->The knowledge are respected all over the world .
2/ When the agent is obivious :
*In Passive sentences , when all people understand who do/does the action, then there is no need to mention the agent again .
Ex : The criminal was arrested ( by the police)
3/When the agent is unimportant( we don't need to know about the agent)
I was advised to worked harder.
4/When the agent is unknown ( we don't know anything about the agent)
She was killed yesterday
5/When both speakers and listeners know the agent
I was tested thoroughly.
6/When the speaker doesn't want to mention the agent. Then the agent is omitted.
It has been agreed to increased the salaries by 5%
7/When the speaker want to focus on the action rather than the agent
Mails are delivered to whom addressed
Verbs with 2 objects
-This kind of verbs can also be called the Verbs of giving because thet have the same pattern as " give"
-In this case, either of these objects can be the subject of a passive sentence
-We will use the object which we want to emphasize to be the subject of the passive sentence .
The nurse gives the patient a sleeping pill
--> The patient is given a sleeping pill
--->A sleeping pill is given to the patient .
Other Verbs can be used in this pattern Cuối bài có file đính kèm 1 số động từ dùng như cách của động từ " give ")
Verbs with Object and Complement
-This kind of verbs is also called complex transitive verbs. There are some verbs such as: make , find.
*It made me ill
--> I was made ill
*People found he had died
--> He was found dead
Passive with " want" and "need"
-If the sentence follows the first structure , we have to make it passive like the second.
S+want/need+ O(1)+ to - infinitive+ O (2)
---> Passive : S+ want/ need+ O (2)+ to be Past participle + by O(1)
Ex : He wants her to take a photo
-->He wants a photo to be taken
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Change the following sentences into passive voice
1. They can't make tea with cold water.
2. The chief engineer was introcting all the workers of the plant
3. Somebody has taken away some of my books
4. They will hold the meeting before May Day.
5. They have to repair the enginer of the car.
6. The boy broke the window and took away some pictures.
7. A man I know told me about it.
8. No one believes his story.
9. Do they teach English here?
10. Will you invite her to your wedding party?
11. Did the teacher give some exercises?
12. Is she going to write a poem?
13. Have they changed the window of the laboratory?
14. Is she making big cakes for the party?
15. Why didn't they help him?
16. How many games has the team played?
17. What time can the boys hand in their papers?
18. They had sent enough money to these poor boys.
19. People believe that 13 is an unlucky number.
20. They rumored that man was still living.
21. They think that he has died a natural death.
22. People believed that the earth stood still.
23. We'll continue to use this computer.
24. They began to plant rubber trees in big plantations.
25. I have heard her sing this song several times.
26. People saw him steal your car.
27. The detective saw the woman putting the jewelry in her bag.
28. Open your books
29. Don't do that silly thing again.
30. Don't let the other see you.
31. You need to have your hair cut.
32. You must see it to believe it.
33. He wants someone to take some photographs.
34. He likes people to call him "Sir".
35. it's your duty to do this work.
36. It's dangerous for us to take the short cut.
37. We enjoy writting letters.
38. Smoke fills the room.
39. He recommends me to do the job.
40. She urges him to visite her parents as soon as possible.